Herniated discs develop as the spinal discs degenerate or grow thinner. The jellylike central portion of the disc bulges out of the central cavity and pushes against a nerve root. Inter vertebral discs begin to degenerate usually in thirties.
Sciatica pain usually travels down to one lower extremity.Usually a shooting pain like electricity, burning sensation or tingling .The pain can range from slightly annoying to totally unbearable.
* Spondylitis is termed as noninfectious inflammation of the spine.This can cause stiffness and pain in the spine that is particularly worse in the morning. Ankylosing spondylitis typically begins in adolescents and young adults.
Spondylosis occurs when inter vertebral discs lose their moisture and volume with age.This decreases the disc height. Even minor trauma or sprain during this condition can cause inflammation and nerve root impingement.
- spinal stenosis (spinal-canal narrowing) may be seen in persons who experience pain radiating down both lower extremities while standing for a long time or walking even short distances. Disc degeneration coupled with disease in joints of the low back may be the reason.
- Cauda equina syndrome is considered as a medical emergency .Disc material expands into the spinal canal, which compresses the nerves.Since the spinal cord is directly compressed, apart from pain, possible loss of sensation, and bowel or bladder dysfunction can occur.Inability to control urination (incontinence) or the inability to begin urination can also be noticed.
- Fibromyalgia is seen in a person with generalised muscle ache, tenderness, stiffness and fatigue. The pain may feel like a deep ache, or a shooting, burning pain and may get worse with activity, cold or damp weather, anxiety, and stress.
- Myofascial pain is characterized by pain and tenderness over localized trigger points, Decreased range of motion in the involved muscle groups, and pain radiating in a characteristic distribution but restricted to a peripheral nerve.Pain is relieved with stretching.
- Osteomyelitis ( Infection of the bones of the spine) can also cause low back pain.
- Cancerous tumors can also be a source of skeletal pain.
- Viral infections like herpes zoster seen in Shingles can also cause inflamation of the nerves from the spine.This can occur in the thoracic area to cause upper back pain or in the lumbar area to cause low back pain
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